The risk for Infection Care Plan and Nursing Diagnosis Writing Help
Often, infections occur when the body’s natural immune system is insufficient to protect them. As such, organisms like fungus, bacteria, viruses, and parasites invade the susceptible host through exposure and injuries.
When administering nursing medical care to a patient diagnosed with an infection, the Risk for Infection Care Plan will provide the required actions needed for effective infection management.
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The risk for Infection Care Plan Diagnosis
When we say increased risk of infection, it doesn’t mean that there is already existing disease. But it is important to have identification of factors that increase the risk as part of the care plan to define the most appropriate ways of preventing infections.
There are different health issues and conditions that heighten the chances of infection by providing an encouraging environment for the development of infections. But what are the common causes of infection and factors that place a patient at a threat for infection?
- Insufficient knowledge on avoiding exposure to pathogens
- Compromise on host defenses by conditions such as HIV, diabetes, intubation, invasive lines, dialysis, surgery, or other terminal conditions
- Inadequate primary defenses like tissue damage or broken skin
- Contact with contagious and infectious agents
- Lack of immunization
- Chronic diseases
- Compromised circulation like peripheral vascular disease, lymphedema, or obesity
- Sex with multiple partners
- Increased vulnerability to infants like those born by HIV positive mothers or those who lack maternal antibodies
- Rupture of amniotic membranes
The risk for Infection Care Plan Goals and Outcomes
A caregiver should contemplate the goals that the care plan aims to achieve. The intention is to point out the risk factors for various infections and take precautions. Caregiving can be said to be successful when the care plan attains the following outcomes that empower the patient to:
- Remain free of infection as evidenced by the lack of signs and symptoms that indicate the presence of an illness.
- Show commitment and understanding of hygiene techniques like hand washing
- Identify signs of disease early for immediate treatment
The risk for Infection Care Plan Assessment and Rationale
Assessment of the risk for infection care plan is significant as it helps identify factors that may precipitate infection. It also helps in redesigning the care plan to address the cause of infection. A nurse can assist the patient in solving the problem by first performing these assessments to identify why a patient is at more risk for infection than others.
Presence or history of risk factors
The presence of risk factors is the break of the first line of defense for an individual from infection. A higher white blood cell count of more than 4,500 – 11,000 is an indication that the body is trying to combat pathogens-causing infections. However, a low white blood cell of less than 4,500 shows a risk of severe infection.
Assess nutritional status, serum albumin, weight, and history of sudden loss
The presence of inadequate nutritional status might indicate a compromise in the immune response to pathogens, thus an increased risk of infection.
Monitor for signs and symptoms of infection
Signs and symptoms of infection vary depending on the body area involved. Redness, increased pain, swelling, purulent discharge from incision, injury, and exit sites of tubes, drains, or catheters are classic signs of infection. So, any suspicious drainage should be cultured; antibiotic therapy is prescribed by the pathogens identified.
Assess the color of respiratory secretions and urine
Yellow or yellow-green sputum is an indication of respiratory infection. Turbid, cloudy, and foul-smell urine with visible sediments are signs and symptoms of the urinary tract or bladder infection.
Assess current and past immunization status
Individuals with incomplete immunization may have insufficient acquired active immunity, thus susceptible to infections.
Investigate the presence of immune suppression
Assess the use of medicine and treatment modalities that could result in immune suppression. Medications like antineoplastic agents and corticosteroids are known to reduce immunity.
The risk for Infection Care Plan Interventions and Rationale
The success of a risk for infection care plan is dependent on the kind of interventions a caregiver will make. The following are nursing interventions that help in reducing the risk of infection.
Introduce the patient to food rich in protein and calories
By taking a nutritious diet that is rich in proteins and calories, you help support the immune system response.
Encourage the taking of enough amount of fluids
Enough intakes of fluids promote dilution of urine and increased frequency of emptying of the bladder, thereby reducing the status of urine. Regular passing of urine reduces the risk of the urinary tract and bladder infection. As such, encourage the patient to take 2-3000ml of water unless there has a medical condition that forbids them from taking such amount of water.
Educate patients and SO about appropriate methods for cleaning, disinfecting, and sterilizing items
Knowledge of ways to minimize or eliminate germs to reduce the likelihood of transmission
Show the patient how to breathe deeply and cough
Show the patient how to cough and breathe deeply, and then he or she practice the skills. This will help to reduce static secretions in the bronchial tree and lungs. The occurrence of states heightens the risk of pathogens appearing in the upper parts of the respiratory tract, thereby causing infections and pneumonia.
Maintain strict asepsis for dressing changes, wound care, intravenous therapy, and catheter handling
The aseptic technique reduces the chances of contracting or transmitting pathogens to or between patients. Interrupting the chain of infection is one of the most effective ways of stopping or preventing the spread of infection.
Teach the importance of avoiding contact with individuals who have infections or colds. Teach the significance of physical distancing
Other individuals can spread infections to susceptible patients through direct contact, air currents, or contaminated objects.
Recommend use of stool softeners and soft-bristled toothbrushes
The use of stool softeners and soft-bristled toothbrushes helps to protect the mucous membranes from the mouth to the stomach and anus from injury, which may provide an entry point for pathogens.
Teach patient to take anti-infectives as prescribed
Antibiotics come in handy when a constant blood level is maintained, which can be done when medications are taken as prescribed. However, not completing the prescribed antibiotic regimen can lead to drug resistance in the pathogen or reactivation of symptoms.
Isolate the patient
In case the patient is hospitalized under medical care from a bout of infection, it is wise to restrict visitations. That way, it helps minimize the risks of pathogen transmission.
Teach the patient about the significance of washing hands. Besides, the caregiver should wash hands before and after attending to the patient or handling any body fluids. Friction from soap and running water are effective at removing infection-causing microorganisms from your hands.
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