CIPD 5CO02 Assignment Example | Evidence-Based Practice
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Task CIPD 5CO02 Assignment Example | Evidence-Based Practice
Task One: Briefing Paper
You have been asked to prepare a briefing paper that is to be given to people practitioners at a regional event, to share insights and good practice. The paper needs to provide an understanding of approaches that can be taken to support effective critical thinking and decision-making within the HR remit.
Your Briefing Paper needs to:
▪ provide an evaluation of the concept of evidence-based practice and assess how evidence-based practice approaches can be used to support sound decision-making and judgments for people practitioners across a range of people practices and organizational issues. (1.1)
▪ Evaluate two micro and two macro analysis tools or methods that can be used in people’s practice to explore an organization’s micro and macro environment, and how those identified might be applied to diagnose future issues, challenges and opportunities. (1.2)
▪ Explain the principles of critical thinking and give examples of how you apply these yourself when relating to your own and others’ ideas, to assist objective and rational debate. (1.3)
▪ Assess at least two different ethical theories and perspectives and explain how an understanding of these can be used to inform and influence effective decision-making. (1.4)
▪ Explain a range of decision-making approaches that could be used to identify possible solutions to a specific issue relating to people’s practice. (2.3)
▪ As a worked example to illustrate the points made in 2.3, take this same people practice issue, explain the relevant evidence that you have reviewed, and use one or more decisionmaking tools to determine a recommended course of action, explaining the rationale for that decision and identifying the benefits, risks and financial implications of the suggested solution. (2.2 & 2.4)
▪ compare and contrast a range of different ways and approaches that are used to measure financial and non-financial performance within organizations. (3.1)
Evaluation of the concept of evidence-based practice including how it can be applied to decision-making in people practice (1.1)
Evidence-based practice relates to a process where decisions, as well as processes, are evaluated by an organization against the data available, opinions of the experts, real experiences, and any other information which may be available.
This ensures that the decisions made will lead to the desired outcomes. It can also be said to be a systematic process in which all the actions and decisions are arrived at through the use of the available best evidence (Oxford-review, 2021). It is important to ensure that the evidence to be used is purposely sought out to facilitate the process working out best.
The evidence to be used may be sought from various sources such as experts’ knowledge, studies, or research, inputs from those who will be impacted directly by the decisions to be made, and the experience of the human resource team members.
Care should be taken when utilizing the evidence sought. The evidence should apply to the entity, the contextual details are incorporated and relevant, the inputs are obtained from the key stakeholders and the various perspectives of the input should be evaluated and taken into account, and ensure that the various sources are used equivalently to avoid bias.
When the evidence is obtained from the experts, the information needs to be evaluated critically to ensure that that is no bias in the opinion which is likely to arise. Through the use of this method, bias, subjective opinions, and views that are unfounded are eliminated when making decisions for the business.
Reasons for evidence-based practice
Evidence-based practices are essential because often, those who are tasked with the responsibility of making decisions within organizations make imperfect decisions. This arises mainly because they are reluctant in finding high-quality information which will guarantee effective decisions.
More so, they let their preconceptions, as well as biases, hinder rational decisions although it can be said to be human nature. The individuals also do not make concerted efforts of seeking out additional information of the inputs especially in areas where they have experienced or believe they have much information.
As a result of this, the managers make fast decisions without considering all essential information, they purely depend on their instincts, do not consider changes that may have occurred from their past experiences, they follow the market and workplace trends without any evaluation of critical information regarding the same and at the same time, they are not aware of the recent research relating to the area under interest (Marler & Boudreau, 2017).
It is common knowledge that it is not easy to forgo past tendencies so that the right choices are made from numerous credible information sources. This then forms the basis of the evidence-based practice implementation. Organizations need to establish processes that make it necessary for the acquisition of additional information sources that are reliable to assist in the decision-making process and ensure that those decisions are effective.
The evidence base practice facilitates the making of best decisions using the limited information that is at the disposal of the managers (Noe et al., 2017). With the application of EBP, the managers are sure that no wrong decisions can be made and as such, the managers feel confident and are likely to get it right.
EBP is also essential because it necessitates the users to use their abilities as well as skills in assessing the extent to which the data and information is appropriate concerning a specific event.
The users are also required to evaluate the validity and reliability of the evidence that exists regarding a particular scenario. The best organizational evidence involves the exploration of people analytics to enhance the management of people within the organization.
Through people analytics, the employers will be in a good position to laying down effective strategies that will ensure that the employees make essential contributions to the organization. They will also identify the skills gaps that exist, and identification of areas where unique expertise is required (Baczor, 2019; Reddy & Lakshmikeerthi, 2017).
The practitioners will also be required to have experience and utilize their judgment in making informed decisions as this forms the basis of generating insights and perspectives that will lead to effective business decisions.
They will also understand why people behave the way they do and how they arrive at their decisions. Organizational culture is also key in EPD implementation. The organizational culture should be aligned in such a way that the EBP implementation is enhanced and is in line with the organizational capabilities (CIPD, 2021).
Evaluation of analysis tools and methods including how they can be applied to diagnose organizational issues, challenges, and opportunities (1.2)
Five porter’s forces
Porter’s five forces are an essential tool that is critical in the evaluation of the issues that are faced by an organization. As an environmental analysis tool, it is effective in the evaluation of the competition level that is faced by an organization from its competitors and utilizes the results from the analysis in laying down mitigation strategies. The five forces that were recommended by porters were the supplier’s power, the buyer’s power, competitive rivalry, threats of new entrants, and threats of substitution.
McKinsey 7 S
McKinsey’s model has been a successful management model that has been used by organizations in determining whether they have been positioned in such a way that it will help in achieving the anticipated organizational goals. This model consists of seven internal factors that an organization should align so that it will become successful. The seven S include structure, systems, strategy, skills, staff shared values, and style (Baishya, 2015).
PESTEL analysis is an essential tool that is used in evaluating the external environment (Hecklau, et al., 2016). Six main areas are evaluated under this analysis. They include;
The political environment is constantly changing. These changes may include changes in law and other factors. These changes may impact the organization’s performance. Where the environment is not conducive, the organisation will experience challenges in attracting and retaining high-quality staff. Organizations should come up with strategies that will ensure that the current staff does not leave and new caliber staff with the pre-requisite talents are attracted and retained.
It evaluates whether the existing economic conditions favor the organization’s growth. An organization should take advantage of prevailing economic conditions by recruiting employees who are multi-skilled or have higher skills that are beneficial to the organization.
It evaluates the changing demographics in the region in which the organization is operating. This will have an impact on the organization’s performance. The organization should ensure that the products, as well as the services offered, meet the needs of the changing demographics. The organization should also cultivate a culture that promotes a diverse workforce.
It evaluates the changes in technology and how it impacts on organizational performance. New and advanced technology is always favorable because it reduces the cost of operation and at the same time, it guarantees high-quality output. HR should put measures in place that ensure that the employees acquire the new skills that are required for the new technology.
These factors have a great impact on the business. An organization should ensure that its strategies help in minimizing the impact these factors may have on the business. These may include reducing waste, reduction of carbon footprint, and enhancing distribution networks.
Relating to the changing laws that an organization should comply with the HR department should ensure that the organization has employees who are conversant with the changing laws and ensure that these laws are constantly reviewed for compliance (Roy and Chowdhury, 2021).
It is one of the most effective tools that analyze both financial and non-financial factors that may influence an organization. There are four main perspectives
It mainly answers the question “how do the shareholders see us”. The organization should ensure that the shareholders and other stakeholders are satisfied financially.
It answers the question “how do the customers see us”. A successful organization meets the needs of the customers who have a choice in the best way possible. A constant engagement with the customers is critical.
Internal business process perspective
It mainly evaluates how successful the internal operations are and what the organization must excel at. Continuous learning and improvement are recommended.
Learning and growth perspective
It evaluates whether the organization is continuously improving in its operation and adding value to its stakeholders. This is mainly evaluated based on the investment in research and development (Nørreklit et al., 2018).
Principles of critical thinking and how to apply them (1.3)
There are various principles of critical thinking. These principles include gathering sufficient and complete information, understanding and defining all the terms, questioning the methods through which the facts provided have been derived, questioning the conclusions that have been arrived at, looking for the biases and assumptions that may be hidden, questioning the sources of the facts, examining the bigger picture, examining numerous causes and effect, and lastly, understanding the biases and values of an individual.
These principles are essential to an individual as they enhance one’s ability to reflect on problems or ideas that may be flaunted. They also enable an individual to apply reason and at the same time help in making logical connections between the various ideas that are available (Paul and Elder, 2019).
The principles also help development in the development of beneficial skills. These skills may include analytical thinking, creative thinking, problem-solving ability, being open-minded and considering various options that may be appropriate, development of good communication capabilities, promotion of teamwork approach in the solving of organizational problems, and lastly, evaluating one’s contribution to the achievement of organizational goals.
Assessing how different ethical perspectives can influence decision making
Ethics relates to a branch of philosophy that deals with human conduct and character. In other words, it can be said to be a moral system or rules of behavior. There are various ethical theories.
According to this theory, an action is considered to be morally right if its consequences benefit a large group of people (Miller, 2021). This theory, therefore, suggests that when one is making decisions, they should always consider whether their actions will benefit the largest group of individuals although this may be in contradiction of existing policies, rules, and laws. It mainly advocates for actions that will bring about happiness as well as pleasure and at the same time it discourages those actions that are likely to cause harm (Scarre, 2020). However, the major drawback of this theory is that the rights of the minority are ignored.
Deontology / Kantianism
According to this theory, an action is considered right or wrong with reference to certain rules or obligations as opposed to the consequences of an action. This theory, therefore, suggests that people have a duty or an obligation of treating others with respect and dignity. It is therefore important for individuals to adhere to their obligations or duties when they are making decisions. In an organization, there are rules, policies as well as other guidelines that have been laid down (Kranak, 2019). When making decisions, the organizational members should follow these obligations in the best way possible.
Decision-making approaches could be used to identify possible solutions to a specific issue relating to people’s practice.
There are basic steps that should be followed in the decision-making process that will lead to possible solutions to the issues that are faced by people. The first step involves the identification of the problem or the challenge. At this point, the decision maker tries to understand the issue by gathering as much information as possible. The second step involves identifying possible solutions or alternatives. The decision-maker should consider as many alternatives as possible. The decision-maker should not use instincts or past experience as the issue at hand may be different or complex.
Thirdly, the decision-maker should evaluate the alternatives. Not all alternatives will be fit for the issue at hand and therefore evaluation of the most appropriate alternative is critical. The next step involves making a decision. After evaluation of the alternatives, the best alternative is selected. Lastly, the decision-maker implements and manages the decision that was made. The decision-maker should constantly evaluate the implementation process to determine whether the decision made is leading to the anticipated results (Business Analysis Made Easy, 2014). The decisions can be made through reflection, learning by doing, brainstorming as well as learning from shared experiences
The rationale for the decision is based on an evaluation of the benefits, risks, and financial implications of potential solutions
All decisions made will have possible benefits, risks as well as financial implications. However, the decision-maker should ensure that the solutions suggested are viable.
The benefits should also outweigh the risks and should be in line with the resources that have been applied. the benefits that may accrue to an organization that makes effective decisions include the achievement of the organizational goals or objectives, the organization remains competitive, few or no litigations arising from non-compliance, enhanced capabilities of the organizational workforce, enhanced customer relations and engagement, enhanced relations with the stakeholders, enhanced corporate image and goodwill and enhanced organizational structure and culture. On the other hand, various risks are likely to face the organization.
These risks mainly include changes in environmental factors that affect strategy implementation, industry shifts that affect organizational performance and the possibility of leaving some issues or problems unresolved.
Ways organizations measure financial and non-financial performance
Every organization should measure its performance to determine whether it is achieving its objectives or not. The measures used include both financial and non-financial measures.
The financial measures that may be used include the determination of the sales or revenue generated, the market price of its shares, the cash flow within a specified period, the actual profit and compare it with budgeted profit, return on investment, return on capital employed, the residual income, growth in fixed assets and the cost savings or reduction achieved within a specified period (Narkunienė and Ulbinaitė, 2018).
The non-financial performance measures employed include the level of customer satisfaction as well as retention, the quality of the products and whether they rhyme with the specifications presented, feedback from the stakeholders, the service legal agreements, the level of organizational efficiency as well as productivity, and the extent to which the organization has complied with all the environmental obligations (Omran et al., 2021).
Evidence-based practices are essential in facilitating informed decisions. Numerous tools can be used in evaluating organizational performance. They include the PESTEL analysis, balanced scorecard, the McKinsey 7s, and porter’s five forces. Decisions that are made should be guided by the principles of critical thinking. Every organization should measure its performance using both financial and non-financial performance measures.
Task two: Data analysis and review
Task Two Answer
In preparation for the upcoming departmental heads meeting, the manager asked me to prepare a range of data and analysis for use at a meeting. 256 employees and 145 customers participated in the 360o review for Department A. The data was collected using a two-point Likert scale (1. Agree, 2. Disagree). Table 1 shows the feedback solicited from employees regarding their line manager and Table 2 shows feedback solicited from customers concerning their experience with the consumption of Department A’s goods and services. In both tables, the responses have been represented in form of frequency and percentage.
|Table 1: 360 Feedback from employees on their line-manager|
|Positively supported by their line manager in the role that they perform.||100||39.06%||156||60.94%|
|Performance targets set by their line manager were achievable.||45||17.58%||211||82.42%|
|The amount of learning and development that they received helped them achieve current and future working practices||95||37.11%||161||62.89%|
|Line manager is empathetic to my work/life balance.||112||43.75%||144||56.25%|
|Line manager actively promotes their self-development and career progression.||68||26.56%||188||73.44%|
|Line manager is approachable.||37||14.45%||219||85.55%|
|Line manager avoids bias in attitude and treatment of people||86||33.59%||170||66.41%|
|Line manager resolves conflict amongst team members.||102||39.84%||154||60.16%|
|Line manager delegates authority and independence.||6||2.34%||250||97.66%|
|Line manager communicates reasons for changes and decisions.||11||4.30%||245||95.70%|
|Table 2: 360 Feedback from customers|
|The goods and services on offer are value for money||101||69.66%||44||30.34%|
|The delivery of products and services were timely from point of sale to delivery.||45||31.03%||100||68.97%|
|The quality of goods and services were acceptable||114||78.62%||31||21.38%|
|Customer services were assessable and responsive to all calls.||34||23.45%||111||76.55%|
|All complaints were dealt with in. a timely and professional manner||54||37.24%||91||62.76%|
|The after sales services were good.||27||18.62%||118||81.38%|
|Initial enquiry was handled in a timely and professional manner.||3||2.07%||142||97.93%|
|Packaging was acceptable in protecting the goods.||143||98.62%||2||1.38%|
|Recommend the company to a friend or business||98||67.59%||47||32.41%|
|The range of products and services was sufficient to satisfy their requirements.||31||21.38%||114||78.62%|
Analysis and Interpretation
According to Table 1, employees feel that they are not positively supported by their line manager in the role that they perform; the performance targets set by their line managers are not achievable; the amount of learning and development that they received do not help them achieve current and future working practices; line managers do not actively promote self-development and career progression; line managers are unapproachable; line managers are biased in attitude and treatment of people; line managers don’t delegate authority and they fail to communicate reasons for changes and decisions.
According to customers (Table 2), the company doesn’t deliver its products in a timely manner from point of sale to delivery. The customer care is not responsive and accessible and the after-sales services are poor. When customers inquire about a product for the first time, they are met with high levels of unprofessionalism and delays. Additionally, the range of services is not sufficient in satisfying their requirements. However, are happy with the packaging are likely to recommend the company to their peers.
Systems for Measuring Employee Performance
It is important for companies to assess the situation of their human resource (employee performance). Employee performance evaluation is basically how employees are performing at a given time. Successful organizations measure their human potential frequently. When quantifying human performance, the evaluators must use a mixture of concrete data and soft intuitive insights. The are various systems at an assessor’s disposal to measure people’s practices. According to Hartford (2017), these systems include graphic rating scales, 360-degree feedback, self-evaluation, management by objectives (MBO), and checklists.
A typical graphic rating scale uses a series of values 1 to 10 or 1 to 5 to evaluate employees’ performance in certain areas. HR managers often use scales to evaluate behavioral elements “participates in decision-making” or “understands job tasks.” Alternatively, they could record the frequency with which certain employees perform certain behaviors or tasks such as “never”, “frequently”, or “always.” Scales can be adapted to suit business needs. 360o feedback takes into consideration the assessments, opinions, and feedback of employees’ performance from the group of people in the company the employees work for. The group can include supervisors, coworkers, and others. As the HR managers analyze the input from various sources, they can note negative and positive trends and similarities. They can also pinpoint areas that need extra support and measurements.
Self-appraisal (evaluation) involves asking employees to rate their performance. Sometimes, employees may criticize their performance more compared to when managers do the appraisal. The department can use forms that need essay-type answers, multiple-option responses, or a hybrid of the two. Comparing the self-appraisal to the managers’ objective evaluation can be important in finding discrepancies and similarities along with a comprehensive knowledge of employee performance. Self-evaluation can trigger discussions that can be significant to employee development.
Management by Objectives (results) involves managers and employees coming together to form objectives. As a team, they determine personal goals, how they align with organizational objectives, and how the performance will be evaluated and measured. MBOs give people a vivid understanding of what is expected of them and enable them to partake in the process, which may increase motivation, and establish better communication. Checklists use a simple “Yes/No) in an easy and quick way to identify employees with deficiencies in various areas of performance. Checklists might also identify employees in need of supplementary training to become efficient.
Key Performance Indicators
Employee performance measurements in a challenging and important role for HR Organizations are different; therefore, there is no single best approach. Also, in evaluating employee performance, there are many subjective aspects, making it challenging and difficult to fairly compare across various teams and management levels. However, some key performance metrics can help in better evaluating performance. Profit. co (2020) discusses the following five major employee performance metrics: work efficiency, quality of work, teamwork, learning ability, and timeliness.
Good employees prioritize and do things with utmost efficiency. Therefore, they must have resources and time at their disposal. Also, they must evaluate how effectively a task was done, monitor unmet deadlines, or identify poorly executed tasks. Because quality is better than quantity, work efficiency is the best in evaluating performance. To measure efficiency, certain values can be allocated to an input-output ratio and the values used to compare and measure each employee’s efficiency. The values indicate whether the company is meeting its goals. When evaluating efficiency, the department needs to measure the following: job description, amount and type of work allocated, deadlines, and work quality.
Employees’ work quality is very important because poor quality leads to inferior products, customer loss, and frustrations from coworkers and customers. Also, employees that deliver poor quality may be unable to hit their performance objectives due to failure to meet organizational standards. Quality can be evaluated using the proportion of work output that must be redone. Quality measures should align with the type of work. How and what is measured depends on the specific tasks and duties and the industry. When quality is rectified, employees can achieve their goals effectively.
Teamwork is major performance measurement in most companies. It is important to establish a teamwork culture and help teams perform better when faced with complex problems. Employers should always look for teamwork traits in an employee. Even though teamwork cannot be measured quantitatively, the department can track it by using pulse surveys that measure the impact of large and small events. These surveys enable managers to ask workers to self-report circumstances when they helped their teammates. Alternatively, employers can use project management software to track the number of tasks the workers volunteer for vs the number of tasks allocated.
A company and its workers’ ability to stay relevant boils down to their ability to learn and adapt. To facilitate this, training initiatives must be developed to meet employees’ specific needs. The results of such initiatives must be measured during performance reviews. One way to measure learnability is to monitor the number of online or offline courses an employee has completed in a given time. Low rates of completion reveal that the level of ability to learn is low. The metric can also be measured by evaluating an employee’s performance in a previous task relative to the most recent task.
The ability to meet deadlines is important in all tasks and functions. A time-conscious employee values deadline, consistently delivers in time, values others’ time, and uses time optimally. Inability to meet deadlines could indicate health concerns, burnout, or lack of motivation. Even though it is common for workers to fail to stick to the timeline sometimes, absenteeism and missing deadlines can result in low productivity, low motivation, and exert additional pressure on other team members.
Impact of Bonuses
Companies with robust performance management frameworks usually attach compensation to performance appraisal measures to determine the level of salary increments and bonuses for workers to hit or surpass the organization’s benchmarks. Other organizations may use them as part of reward or employee recognition programs or remit bonuses after meeting organizational objectives. Bonuses improve employee performance in various ways and some of them are improving employee motivation, and encouraging workers to achieve their targets which in turn improves productivity. Other employee motivation techniques include creating a conducive work environment, acknowledging the achievement of employees, positive communication, employee training and development, and teamwork.
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